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Sunday, 23 September 2012

Overview of Power Distribution

OVERVIEW OF POWER SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION
power distribution

For requirement and reliability purpose the various components of a power system can be arranged in different ways. The complexity of the resulting architecture determines the availability of electrical energy and the cost of the investment.
Power distribution for a given application is therefore based on a trade-off between technical necessities and cost.
Architectures include the following:
  1. Radial systems
    • Single-feeder
    • Double-feeder
    • Parallel-feeder
    • Dual supply with double bus bar
  2. Loop systems
    • Open loop
    • Closed loop
  3. Systems with internal power generation
    • Normal source generation
    • Replacement source generation
The table below lists the main characteristics of each architecture for omparison. Illustrations are provided below table.
Architecture
Use
Advantages
Drawbacks
 Radial
Single-feeder radial
Processes not requiring
continuous supply
E.g. a cement works
Most simple architecture
Easy to protect
Minimum cost
Low availability
Downtime due to faults may be long
A single fault interrupts supply to the entire
feeder
Double-feeder radial
Continuous processes: steel,
petrochemicals
Good continuity of supply
Maintenance possible on busbars
of main switchboard
Expensive solution
Partial operation of busbars during
maintenance
Parallel-feeder
Large power systems
Future expansion is limited
Good continuity of supply
Simple protection
Requires automatic control functions
Double busbars
Processes requiring high
continuity of service
Processes with major load
changes
Good continuity of supply
Flexible operation: no-break transfers
Flexible maintenance
Expensive solution
Requires automatic control functions
 Loop systems
Open loop
Very large power systems
Major future expansion
Loads concentrated in
different zones of a site
Less expensive than closed loop
Simple protection
Faulty segment can be isolated during loop
reconfiguration
Requires automatic control functions
Closed loop
Power system offering high
continuity of service
Very large power systems
Loads concentrated in
different zones of a site
Good continuity of supply
Does not require automatic control
functions
Expensive solution
Complex protection system
 Internal power generation
Normal source
generation
Industrial process sites
producing their own energy
E.g. paper plants, steel
Good continuity of supply
Cost of energy (energy recovered
from process)
Expensive solution
Replacement source
(source changeover)
Industrial and commercial
sites
E.g. hospitals
Good continuity of supply for priority
outgoing feeders
Requires automatic control functions

Examples of Power System Architectures


3 comments:

  1. Hey nice story... I love the way you presented whole story, Thanks for sharing such a useful information with us

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  2. Distribution transformers are mainly 3 phase pole mounted type. The secondary of the transformer is connected to distributors. Different consumers are fed electric power by means of the service mains.

    Power Transformers in India | Transformer Manufacturer in India

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